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Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Central to any object-oriented language are the concepts of class and of methods. A class is a definition of an object. Typically a class contains several slots that are used to hold class-specific information. An object in the language must be an instance of some class. Programming is based on objects or instances of classes.

Computations are carried out via methods . Methods are basically functions that are specialized to carry out specific calculations on objects, usually of a specific class. This is what makes the language object oriented. In R, generic functions are used to determine the appropriate method. The generic function is responsible for determining the class of its argument(s) and uses that information to select the appropriate method.

Another feature of most object-oriented languages is the concept of inheritance. In most programming problems there are usually many objects that are related to one another. The programming is considerably simplified if some components can be reused.

If a class inherits from another class then generally it gets all the slots in the parent class and can extend it by adding new slots. On method dispatching (via the generic functions) if a method for the class does not exist then a method for the parent is sought.

In this chapter we discuss how this general strategy has been implemented in R and discuss some of the limitations within the current design. One of the advantages that most object systems impart is greater consistency. This is achieved via the rules that are checked by the compiler or interpreter. Unfortunately because of the way that the object system is incorporated into R this advantage does not obtain. Users are cautioned to use the object system in a straightforward manner. While it is possible to perform some rather interesting feats these tend to lead to obfuscated code and may depend on implementation details that will not be carried forward.

The greatest use of object oriented programming in R is through print methods, summary methods and plot methods. These methods allow us to have one generic function call, plot say, that dispatches on the type of its argument and calls a plotting function that is specific to the data supplied.

In order to make the concepts clear we will consider the implementation of a small system designed to teach students about probability. In this system the objects are probability functions and the methods we will consider are methods for finding moments and for plotting. Probabilities can always be represented in terms of the cumulative distribution function but can often be represented in other ways. For example as a density, when it exists or as a moment generating function when it exists.

Next: Inheritance , Previous: Object-oriented programming , Up: Object-oriented programming [ Contents ][ Index ]

Rather than having a full-fledged object-oriented system R has a class system and a mechanism for dispatching based on the class of an object. The dispatch mechanism for interpreted code relies on four special objects that are stored in the evaluation frame. These special objects are .Generic , .Class , .Method and .Group . There is a separate dispatch mechanism used for internal functions and types that will be discussed elsewhere.

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Ruben Rumbaut

The new immigration to the United States is unprecedented in its diversity of color, class, and cultural origins. Over the past few decades, the racial and ethnic composition and stratification of the American population—as well as the social meanings of race, ethnicity, and American identity—have fundamentally changed. This book examines the lives and trajectories of the children of today's immigrants. The emerging ethnic groups of the United States in the twenty-first century are being formed in this process, with potentially profound societal impacts. Whether this new ethnic mosaic reinvigo ... More

The new immigration to the United States is unprecedented in its diversity of color, class, and cultural origins. Over the past few decades, the racial and ethnic composition and stratification of the American population—as well as the social meanings of race, ethnicity, and American identity—have fundamentally changed. This book examines the lives and trajectories of the children of today's immigrants. The emerging ethnic groups of the United States in the twenty-first century are being formed in this process, with potentially profound societal impacts. Whether this new ethnic mosaic reinvigorates the nation or spells a quantum leap in its social problems depends on the social and economic incorporation of this still-young population. The chapters probe systematically and in depth the adaptation patterns and trajectories of concrete ethnic groups. They provide a close look at this rising second generation by focusing on youth of diverse national origins—Mexican, Cuban, Nicaraguan, Filipino, Vietnamese, Haitian, Jamaican, and other West Indian—coming of age in immigrant families on both coasts of the United States. The chapters' analyses draw on the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, the largest research project of its kind to date. The book demonstrates that, while some of the ethnic groups being created by the new immigration are on a clear upward path, moving into society's mainstream in record time, others are headed toward a path of blocked aspirations and downward mobility. It concludes with a chapter summarizing the main findings, discussing their implications, and identifying specific lessons for theory and policy.

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, , ethnicity , American identity , societal impact , children of immigrants , downward mobility

Not unexpectedly, bacteria commonly associated with biliary tract infections (primarily cholecystitis and cholangitis) are the same organisms recovered from cases of pyogenic liver abscess (see above and Table 29 ). Parasitic causes include Ascaris and Clonorchis spp or any parasite that can inhabit the biliary tree leading to obstruction [ 166 ]. At a minimum, cultures for aerobic bacteria (anaerobes if the aspirate is collected appropriately) and Gram stain should be requested. When signs of sepsis and peritonitis are present, blood and peritoneal cultures should be obtained as well.

For patients with HIV infection, the list of potential agents and subsequent microbiology evaluations needs to be expanded to include Cryptosporidium , microsporidia, Cystoisospora ( Isospora) belli , CMV, and M. avium complex [ 166 ]. As the identification of these organisms requires special processing, it is important to communicate with the laboratory to determine test availability either on-site or at a reference laboratory.

Most cases of splenic abscess are the result of metastatic or contiguous infectious processes, trauma, splenic infarction, or immunosuppression [ 169 ]. Infection is most likely aerobic and monomicrobic with Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Enterococcus spp, Salmonella spp, and E. coli commonly isolated. Anaerobic bacteria have been recovered in 5%–17% of culture-positive cases [ 170 ]. Aspirates should be processed in a similar manner as pyogenic liver abscesses including aerobic and anaerobic culture, Gram stain, and concomitantly collected blood culture sets ( Table 30 ). Unusual causes of splenic abscess include Bartonella spp, Brucella melitensis , Streptobacillus moniliformis , Nocardia spp, and Burkholderia pseudomallei (uncommon outside of Southeast Asia or without suggestive travel history) [ 171 ]. The laboratory should be notified if B. melitensis or B. pseudomallei is possible due to the need for increased biosafety/security precautions since they are potential bioterrorism agents. As in biliary disease, the spectrum of organisms to be considered needs to be expanded to include Mycobacterium spp, fungi (including Pneumocystis jirovecii ), and parasites for immunocompromised patients [ 171 ].

Most cases of acute or chronic pancreatitis are produced by obstruction, autoimmunity, or alcohol ingestion [ 172 , 173 ]. Necrotic pancreatic tissue generated by one of these processes can serve as a nidus for infection [ 172 , 173 ]. Infectious agents associated with acute pancreatitis are numerous and diverse; however, superinfection of the pancreas is most often caused by gastrointestinal flora such as E. coli , Klebsiella spp, and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, and Candida spp. Necrotic tissue or pancreatic aspirates should be sent for aerobic bacterial culture and Gram stain and accompanied by 2–3 sets of blood cultures ( Table 30 ). Antimicrobial susceptibility results from isolated organisms can be used to direct therapy to reduce the likelihood of pancreatic sepsis, further extension of infection to contiguous organs, and mortality. Sterile cultures of necrotic pancreatic tissue are not unusual but may trigger consideration of an expanded search for fastidious or slowly growing organisms, parasites, or viruses.

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WATCH Nielsen defends family separation as enforcing the law: 'We will not apologize'
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and Attorney General Jeff Sessions both offered a full-throated defense of the administration's immigration enforcement policies that lead to separation of families on the border.

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"To a select few in the media, Congress and the advocacy community, I'd like to start with a message for you: this department will no longer stand by and watch you attack law enforcement for enforcing the laws passed by Congress," Nielsen said, speaking to the National Sheriffs' Association in New Orleans.

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